为什么我们应该学会爱蜂

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黄蜂,黄蜂,老鹰狼蛛,噢,我的。黄蜂可能是可怕的,但没有他们的世界将是一场灾难。

Here's the thing. The wasp family is in need of rebranding.

虽然蜜蜂已成为授粉集的adorably条纹宠儿,可怜的黄蜂 - 属于同一量级蜜蜂和蚂蚁 - 断然不喜欢。黄蜂被困,喷,扑打和压扁。有没有“拯救黄蜂!”活动,也没有清单“什么植物黄蜂友好花园”。黄蜂在这里越来越受到冷遇。

现在,说句公道话,做的蜜蜂酿蜜,这是伟大的公关。与此同时,黄蜂早已塑像作为恶棍......,可以是脾气暴躁......并有吓人的名字......而且可以包时,他们蜇惊人的一拳。但尽管如此,他们无所谓,而事实上他们不管了很多。

Seirian Sumner, a senior lecturer in Behavioural Biology at the University of Bristol writes about the maligned insects inThe Conversation。She notes, "Despite their poor public image, wasps are incredibly important for the world’s economy and ecosystems. Without them, the planet would be pest-ridden to biblical proportions, with much reduced biodiversity. They are a natural asset of a world dominated by humans, providing us with free services that contribute to our economy, society and ecology."

谁知道?我的意思是,大家都知道智力,每个生物都有发挥和关键物种,它们的去除可能导致东西倒下来为灾难具有重要作用 - 但在感情上,我们很多人想忘记黄蜂这一事实。

萨姆纳说,有一些已经确定,几乎是许多人或许还是个未知数超过11种蜂。他们有两种类型:寄生在和Aculeata。多数黄蜂物种属于寄生群体,谁,正如其名称暗示了,把卵产在其他生物体。他们可能会使用细长的管状器官叫做产卵。该Aculeates,而另一方面,大多是天敌和,而不是产卵器入侵活的东西,他们只是有毒刺。OK,我的“M可能不上诉因素帮助在这里,我知道,但忍耐一下 - 这goriness转化为善萨姆纳写道:。

"Both parasitic and predatory wasps have a massive impact on the abundance of arthropods, the largest phylum in the animal kingdom, which includes spiders, mites, insects, and centipedes. They are right at the top of the invertebrate food chain. Through the regulation of both carnivorous and plant-feeding arthropod populations, wasps protect lower invertebrate species and plants. This regulation of populations is arguably their most important role, both ecologically and economically."

从本质上讲,他们是主人灭虫。虽然大多数蜂种是由孤类型的,社会物质对昆虫群体产生了巨大影响。单巢提供的生态系统服务暴利,取出蜘蛛,千足虫和作物叼着昆虫的巨大数字,萨姆纳说。

作为通才食肉动物,它们控制物种的阵列,但不与程度,他们消除其他物种。因此,他们提供了宝贵的,自然虫害控制,农业部门 - 他们渴望像毛毛虫一样,蚜虫和粉虱虫害,没有他们,全球粮食安全可能是少了很多安全。

榕小蜂

©Bascar

虽然他们都是通才食肉动物,它们是专门授粉。他们有一个亲密的关系,例如,无花果。我一直都知道,无花果和榕小蜂一起去像花生酱和果冻。但是,直到我读萨姆纳的文章中,我从来没有想过的事实,无花果需要黄蜂;无花果是热带生态系统的一个重要的关键物种。如果没有无花果和他们的同伴黄蜂,千余哺乳动物和鸟类将失去重要的食物来源。

Not only would the loss of wasps be devastating for fig-reliant species, but some 100 species of orchids also rely on wasps for pollinations. No wasps would mean fewer orchids in the world. That would be sad. Wasp species that work as generalist pollinators also provide similar services as do bees, helping plants that rely on winged assistance to get pollen from one rooted plant to another.

So heroic are these little warriors that they may even hold the keys to one of the greatest puzzles of all: The cure for cancer. Researchers have been looking into the cancer-fighting properties of wasp venom and have found that the venom of a Brazilian wasp can杀死癌细胞的实验室。只有更多的研究和临床试验会告诉我们,如果黄蜂的生物活性分子实际上将导致治愈,但研究结果清楚地鼓励。

So sure, a yellow jacket may come and lift a piece of corn right off your plate while you are eating outside. And yes, a pack of ornery wasps can be a scary thing. (And for those allergic to their venom, even scarier.) But they also patrol our crops far better than we can, enliven ecosystems, are integral to the lives of many fruits and flowers, and may even hold a cure to cancer. As Sumner concludes, "They may be a nuisance on a sunny afternoon – but a world without wasps would be an ecological and economic disaster."

Read Sumner's complete essayhere

而对于如何和平共处的更多信息,请参见:Why wasps attack and how to avoid them